All About Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

The purpose of the minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery is to stabilise the vertebral bones and spinal joints and/or relieve pressure on the spinal nerves, which is typically caused by problems such as spinal instability, bone spurs, herniated discs, scoliosis, or spinal malignancies.

In comparison to open spine surgery, minimally invasive surgical procedures can be faster, safer, and require less recovery time. The potential benefits are:

  • Smaller skin incisions yield better cosmetic outcomes (sometimes as small as several millimetres).
  • Reduced blood loss during surgery
  • Decreased risk of muscle damage because less or no muscle cutting is necessary¬†
  • Lower risk of infection and postoperative pain
  • Surgery recovery time is reduced, and rehabilitation is reduced.
  • Reduced dependency on pain medicines following surgery

There is also less danger of a negative reaction to general anaesthesia because certain MIS surgeries are done as outpatient procedures using only local anaesthetics.

There are dangers involved with any surgical procedure, no matter how little, including but not limited to:

  • Potentially harmful effects of the anaesthetic
  • sudden blood loss when doing the surgery
  • Localized infections, regardless of how little of an incision there is


Procedure of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

The potential MIS operations for treating a spinal issue are determined by orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. MIS surgery could not always be as secure or efficient as conventional open surgery. If so, your physician will be able to explain to you the relative risks and advantages. Moreover, there are some ailments that MIS surgery cannot effectively address.

Every strategy to obtain access to the spinal area necessitates moving the muscle tissue out of the way because the spinal nerves, vertebrae, and discs are positioned deep inside the body. In general, this is made easier by making a small incision and using it to guide tools and/or microscopic video cameras. Contrary to popular assumption, very few MIS operations involve lasers.

During MIS surgery, trauma can be reduced by employing a variety of techniques. Here are a few of the most typical methods.

Tubular Retractor Technique

Instead of cutting directly through the muscles, this approach gradually dilates the soft tissues. The surgeon can work via the incision without having to expose the area widely since he or she is utilising tubes to keep the muscles out of the way. In some cases, the surgeon will additionally employ a microscope or endoscope that is aimed down the tube to help accomplish the surgery using a minimal access technique. The tubular retractor can be taken out after the treatment is finished, allowing the dilated tissues to unite once more. Incisions can frequently be small depending on the type and quantity of surgery required.


  • Percutaneous Placement of Screws and Rods
  • Direct Lateral Access Routes
  • Thoracoscopic Access Route


Commonly Used MIS Surgical Therapies

For MIS surgery, a variety of specialised procedures have been used. The list that follows shows some of the most popular choices even though the area is still evolving.

  1. Discectomy
  2. Spinal decompression
  3. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

Device Technology for Spine Surgery

  1. Endoscope
  2. Fluoroscope
  3. Laparoscope
  4. Minimally invasive tubular retractor (MITR)
  5. Portals

Spinal Fusion & Procedures:

Spinal fusion unites two or more vertebrae solidly. This technique might help to strengthen and stabilise the spine, which might help to relieve severe and persistent back pain. The procedures are as under:

  • Minimally Invasive Lateral Interbody Fusion
  • Minimally Invasive Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)
  • Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)
  • Minimally Invasive Posterior Thoracic Fusion

There are only a few spine surgery online courses in India that provide spine surgery video lectures for professionals to upgrade their skills. One of the best spine surgery courses 2023 is Ganga Videos on Spine Surgery by Prof. Rajasekaran Shanmuganathan, Dr. Ajoy Prasad Shetty and Dr. Rishi Mukesh Kanna. 


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